Harvard referencing is one of the most popular and prevalent styles of learning which is generally used by researchers at the end of their work or study. It is to acknowledge that, through Harvard referencing, it becomes easy to represent the study at international level and the reputation of study can be increased. The pattern or method to include Harvard referencing is very simple, but still it demands a huge level of understanding and intellect about using such kind of referencing style. There are certain rules related to citing the references at the end of work which are required to be followed by any researcher. Before starting the detailed analysis about the use of Harvard referencing, it is essential to understand that the fundamentals of Harvard referencing are completely based on the three basic aspects; punctuations, italics and capitalization. It is essential to understand that this referencing style is generally known as author date style. In this style, the researcher gives proper reverence to the name of author and most importantly, they cite the name of the publishing house along with the title of their article or book. There are various factors which are required to be understood before gaining the proper knowledge about the Harvard referencing. These aspects can help immensely in developing the familiarity with the style of Harvard referencing. The style of referencing completely depends on the kind of source. The role of the British standard institute is huge in setting the standards for Harvard referencing. The description of these sources is given below in a very articulated manner:
Books: When any researcher gets the information from any book, then he needs to put the surname ofthe author followed by initials in capital letter. Then a researcher is supposed to write the year of publishing, andthe book name in italics and most importantly the edition of the book. Further, the researcher has to mention the name of the publishing house as well. The scenario of doing the Harvard referencing could be different in case of one or more than one author. The punctuations will also change as per the number of authors who contributed in the book. The example of all the cases is exhibited below:
Books (one author)
Surname. Initials letter., year. Book name in italics. Edition. Name of publishing house.
Wright. P., 2011. Rules to avoid plagiarism. 3rd ed. Springer.
Books (in case of two authors researcher should use and between two names and rest of the process remains the same)
Wright. P. And Brown. C., 2103. Ten rules to avoid plagiarism. 2nd ed. Springer.
Books (three authors)
Wright. P., Brown. C and Turner. D., 2011. Ten rules to avoid plagiarism. 5th ed. Springer.
In the above scenarios, the referencing style with regards to capitalization and punctuation changes at very large scale. It might be confusing to follow every rule of punctuation, but gradually on can learn. Now, in the case of four or more authors the rule changes slightly. Like, if there are four authors of any book, then the name of the only first author should be used by researcher followed by et.al, e.g.
Wright. P. And et. Al, 2104. Ten rules to avoid plagiarism. 3rd ed. Springer.
Journals: It is another very popular source of referencing. The rules of referencing through the journal articles differ than the book style. Here it includes the title of article, journal name along with the volume, issue and page number. Ahead the style of punctuation is also different. Here it is noticeable that rules with respect to surname and initials and year remains as that were earlier in book style. The description of referencing style through journal article is given below:
Surname, Initials in capital letter, year. Title. Journal name in italics. Volume(issue in brackets). Page number.
Wright. P., 2009. To analyze the impact of referencing on the quality of research report. International journal of research and information. 3(7). Pp. 21-23.
Here, the name of the journal comes into italics and it includes the issue as well as the volume number. Further, in case of two or more than two authors, the basic principles remain same. Thus, it is very short guideline about the Harvard referencing. It is very wide, but here only major sources have been explained in an articulated way.